廣告贊助

 

In the past the country of Malvernia has relied heavily on imported oil. Malvernia recently implemented a program to convert heating systems from oil to natural gas. Malvernia currently produces more natural gas each year than it uses, and oil production in Malvernian oil fields is increasing at a steady pace. If these trends in fuel production and usage continue, therefore, Malvernian reliance on foreign sources for fuel is likely to decline soon.

 

Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in evaluating the argument?

(A) When, if ever, will production of oil in Malvernia outstrip production of natural gas?

(B) Is Malvernia among the countries that rely most on imported oil?

(C) What proportion of Malvernia's total energy needs is met by hydroelectric, solar, and nuclear power?

(D) Is the amount of oil used each year in Malvernia for generating electricity and fuel for transportation increasing?

(E) Have any existing oil-burning heating systems in Malvernia already been converted to natural-gas-burning heating systems?

 

logic book style:

Premise1:In the past the country of Malvernia has relied heavily on imported oil.

Premise2: Malvernia recently implemented a program to convert heating systems from oil to natural gas.

Premise3: Malvernia currently produces more natural gas each year than it uses

Premise4:and oil production in Malvernian oil fields is increasing at a steady pace

Conclusion:If these trends in fuel production and usage continue, therefore, Malvernian reliance on foreign sources for fuel is likely to decline soon.

 

中文對照:

前提一:M國輸入油

前提二:M國的熱機改用氣

前提三:M國生產很多氣

前提四:油也有增加

結論:在產量跟消耗維持的狀況下,M國輸入油下降

連貫性(coherence):M國用油跟產油狀況,補充一下如何找到連貫性,一般會從結論下手,結論提到的主詞及受詞是關鍵,然後再往前提的部分看,一定會有一些內容是在對結論裡面出現的那些主詞和受詞的『變化』描述,而那個『變化』就是要找連貫性的依據了

 

Evaluation評估題都是選項給問題,去使得結論更容易判定,在判定一個argument好還是壞,就是在評估,我們不論他好還是壞,加上個選項中的問句之後,可對結論評價就夠了,Evaluation之前有篇『結婚變肥』的議題有詳細說明過了,這就不多贅述,因此在這樣的情況下要有連貫性才行,所以抓結論主幹,油量下降,所以要找有『量』的問句

 

選項:

(A) When, if ever, will production of oil in Malvernia outstrip production of natural gas?

主題是時間,刪除

 

(B) Is Malvernia among the countries that rely most on imported oil?

講到地理位置這更扯。

 

(C) What proportion of Malvernia's total energy needs is met by hydroelectric, solar, and nuclear power?

各資源需求比例,這完全沒看到『油』

 

(D) Is the amount of oil used each year in Malvernia for generating electricity and fuel for transportation increasing?

就決定是你了,選(D),他的邏輯是在產量跟消耗維持的狀況下,M國輸入油下降,你確定嗎?那如果油的用量增加了,(amount of oil,increasing),那你怎麼說,你這樣說不需從國外進口油就錯了啊,其實我管他增加還是減少,只要讓我能夠知道他是要叫我去評估是增加還減少就夠了,不需要太在意評價後的結果

 

(E) Have any existing oil-burning heating systems in Malvernia already been converted to natural-gas-burning heating systems?

這個選項最白目,因為你對上前提二去做質疑,我要獲得整個argument能夠有評價作用一定是在結論的部分,結論就是整個論辯當中作者覺得他是對的事情,因為作者覺得對,你覺得錯,這樣才有一個評價空間啊因為不客觀啊每個人都有沒個人的看法,看是要幫她打卡按讚,還是肉搜唾棄他,兩者才有拉鋸較量的意味,而前提是對於這個結論所用來幫忙支持的句子,前提二所說的是一個政策的執行,他是一個事件的描述,是一個事實,你對事實去做對錯的判斷沒有意義,而且事實只有分存在跟不存在,不是分對跟錯,也沒辦法說好跟壞,因此評估題可以說是只要看到選項是在講前提的內容基本上就可以給那安心上路了。再來,理由二:我們看到『油量』,『量量』在哪??也沒有連貫,你想選他都難

 

Evaluation 和 assumption的題型解題方法都一樣,都是先找連貫性,找完之後再找是否有結論中的關鍵字

 

我認為GRE的錯誤選項是定義上的問題,角色扮演上的錯誤,而不是翻譯內容上的瑕疵讓他產生錯誤,所以要從定義著手才是王道,以上個人筆記希望有幫助到大家,文章內容中英夾雜請見諒,有誤再請指教!! 


文章標籤
創作者介紹
創作者 老莊雜記 的頭像
老莊雜記

瘋狂背包客莊ㄟ

老莊雜記 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()