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Benjamin Franklin is portrayed in American history as the quintessential self-made man. In “Self-reliance”, Emerson asks, “Where is the master who could have instructed Franklin...?” In fact, Franklin took instruction widely, and his scientific work was highly collaborative. Friends in England sent equipment needed for his electrical experiments, others, in Philadelphia, helped him set up his workshop there. Philip Syng constructed a device for generating electrical charges, while Tomas Hopkinson demonstrated the potential of pointed conductors. Franklin, in addition to being the group’s theoretician, wrote and published its results. His fame as an individual researcher is partly a consequence of the shorthand by which when one person writes about a group’s discoveries, history sometimes grants singular credit for collective effort.

 

1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence?

  1. It states a viewpoint about Franklin with which the author disagrees.
  2. It introduces new evidence about Franklin’s role in the collaborative process.
  3. It explains Franklin’s reputation in terms of a broad scholarly phenomenon.
  4. It emphasizes the extent to which Franklin relied on others in his workshop.
  5. It describes Franklin’s approach to writing scientific results.

  

2. Emerson is mentioned in the passage primarily to

  1. Identify the origin of a particular understanding of Franklin
  2. Elaborate on a view of Franklin that the author takes issue with
  3. Point to a controversial claim about Franklin’s historical legacy
  4. Introduce the question of who Franklin’s main scientific influences were
  5. Suggests that Franklin was resistant to collaboration with other scientists  

 

文章結構:

剛開始先看第一句話,主角是放風箏被電電到的那位,然後探討的重點是他做實驗都自己搞,還是跟別人一起玩多P,很明顯的有個轉折詞in fact,前面講自幹,轉折詞後面講一起合作,而且一直往下看下去,我們沒看到任何的轉折詞了,所以此時就可以不要浪費考場的考試時間,趕快去做題目了,再看下去絕對是在做支持『合作』這個論點的衍生及補充,對我來說都是廢話,除非考試考到我沒看到的部分,基本上先跳過再說。然後再補充一下,凡事轉折過後到最後結果,如果沒有出現另外的轉折詞的話,這篇文章的邏輯會是以轉折後出現的那個論點為作者的基礎思想,如本篇文章就是collaborative為主。

第一題:

@:題目問的是function表示他在考句子和句子之間的結構,絕對不是考高亮句的翻譯,看到highlight句是在最後一行,也看到了is partly a consequence,這表示他在對該立場做總結,沒有為什麼因為整個文章從in fact一直刀最後都沒轉折了,所以這很明顯就是轉折語in fact之後是論點+論據+結論。所以直接看到論點collaborative,因此找跟合作有關的選項即可,候選人有(B),(C),(D),

@:而(B)Franklin’s role in the collaborative process.最大錯誤在此,因為回到整篇文章的架構是在談論到被電的這位老兄做實驗都自己搞自己,還是跟別人一起搞,那這個選項很明顯邏輯層面上已經跳了一層去了,選項的意思已經變成,承認富蘭克林跟別人一起搞,而且還問到他在裡面扮演的角色,顯然是產生嚴重的邏輯跳躍。

@:反過來說(D)也是一樣的情況,the extent to which Franklin relied on others in his workshop,不僅默認,還探討到他需要的依賴程度去了,邏輯也是跳了好幾層

所以選(C)

 

第二題:

這題可以說跟托福當中的修辭目的題格式『一模一樣』,所以直接進入修辭目的題解題三部曲:第一步,判斷論點還是論據,從這句話In “Self-reliance”, Emerson asks, “Where is the master who could have instructed Franklin...?” 我們看到某人說:...的句構這個非常明顯的就是論據了,試想你在工作的時候,公司老闆在責罵你為什麼沒做這件情的時候,你不是不常說:『不是啊,是那個誰誰誰叫我不要做的,而且他還反問我怎麼會這麼想。』藉由別人的嘴巴來支持自己的想法,這就是做為自己立場論點做辯護的明顯的舉證句式,所以不用多說,Emerson asks絕對是論據,而且還看到“Self-reliance”,和Franklin所以更可以確定是論據。第二部,找到論點跟論據間的邏輯關係詞(支持還是反對),因為從文章結構角度來說這類學術性文章一定會遵守以下方式,先論點在論據,先概念在舉例,現概括在細分。然後我們看到第一句和第二句之間沒有任何的連接詞或是副詞用來反對的,甚至是舉例本身也沒有負向字,所以他們是支持的關係,看到這邊可以先刪除一些答案了,(C)的controversial和(D)question都有否定的負面含義,所以掰掰最後第三部:找主幹,所以往前看到Benjamin Franklin is portrayed in American history as the quintessential self-made man.沒什麼好挑了,選(B)take issue with反駁觀點,這個是關帶的內容當作形容詞用的

 

 

以上個人筆記希望有幫助到大家,有誤再請指教!! 


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